Did you know that you can write Plug-ins for Dynamics 365 Customer Engagement/Dynamics CRM (D365CE/CRM) using Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET)? You wouldn’t have thought so after a thorough look through the D365CE/CRM Software Development Kit (SDK). Whilst there is a plethora of code examples available for C# plug-ins, no examples are provided on how to write a basic plug-in for the application using VB.NET. This is to be expected, perhaps due to the common status that the language has when compared with C#. Whilst VB.NET knowledge is a great asset to have when extending Office applications via Visual Basic for Applications, you would struggle to find many at scale application systems that are written using VB.NET. C# is pretty much the de facto language that you need to utilise when developing in .NET, and the commonly held view is that exclusive VB.NET experience is a detriment as opposed to an asset. With this in mind, it is somewhat understandable why the SDK does not have any in-depth VB.NET code examples.

Accepting the above, it is likely however that many long-standing developers will have knowledge of the BASIC language, thereby making VB.NET a natural choice when attempting to extend D365CE/CRM. I do not have extensive experience using the language, but I was curious to see how difficult it would be to implement a plug-in using it – and to hopefully provide assistance to any lonely travellers out there who want to put their VB.NET expertise to the test. The best way to demonstrate this is to take an existing plug-in developed in C# and reverse engineer the code into VB.NET. We took a look at a fully implemented plug-in previously on the blog, that can be used to retrieve the name of the User who has created a Lead record. The entire class file for this is reproduced below:

using System;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Query;

namespace D365.BlogDemoAssets.Plugins
{
    public class PostLeadCreate_GetInitiatingUserExample : IPlugin
    {
        public void Execute(IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
        {
            // Obtain the execution context from the service provider.

            IPluginExecutionContext context = (IPluginExecutionContext)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IPluginExecutionContext));

            // Obtain the organization service reference.
            IOrganizationServiceFactory serviceFactory = (IOrganizationServiceFactory)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IOrganizationServiceFactory));
            IOrganizationService service = serviceFactory.CreateOrganizationService(context.UserId);

            // The InputParameters collection contains all the data passed in the message request.
            if (context.InputParameters.Contains("Target") &&
                context.InputParameters["Target"] is Entity)

            {
                Entity lead = (Entity)context.InputParameters["Target"];

                //Use the Context to obtain the Guid of the user who triggered the plugin - this is the only piece of information exposed.
      
                Guid user = context.InitiatingUserId;

                //Then, use GetUserDisplayCustom method to retrieve the fullname attribute value for the record.

                string displayName = GetUserDisplayName(user, service);

                //Build out the note record with the required field values: Title, Regarding and Description field

                Entity note = new Entity("annotation");
                note["subject"] = "Test Note";
                note["objectid"] = new EntityReference("lead", lead.Id);
                note["notetext"] = @"This is a test note populated with the name of the user who triggered the Post Create plugin on the Lead entity:" + Environment.NewLine + Environment.NewLine + "Executing User: " + displayName;

                //Finally, create the record using the IOrganizationService reference

                service.Create(note);
            }
        }
    }
}

The code above encapsulates a number of common operations that a plug-in can seek to accomplish – updating a record, obtaining context specific values and performing a Retrieve operation against an entity – thereby making it a good example for what will follow in this post.

With everything ready to go, it’s time for less talking and more coding 🙂 We’ll build out a VB.NET version of the above class file, covering some of the “gotchas” to expect on each step, before then bringing all of the code together in a finished state.

Importing References

As you would expect within C#, a class file requires references to the D365CE SDK DLL files. These should be imported into your project and then added to your class file using the Imports statement:

With these two lines of code, there are immediately two things which you may need to untrain yourself from doing if you have come from a C# background:

  1. Make sure not to add your semi-colons at the end of each line, as it is not required for VB.NET
  2. You may be tempted to use the Return key to auto-complete your syntax, which works fine in a C# project…but will instead skip you down to the next line in VB.NET. Instead, use the Tab key to autocomplete any IntelliSense prompts.

Adding a Namespace

By default, a VB.NET class project does not implement a Namespace for your class. This will need to be added next, underneath the project references like so:

Implementing the IPlugin Interface

So far so good…and things continue in the same vein when implementing the IPlugin interface. This is configured like so:

The only thing to remember here, if you are still in C# mode, is that your colon is replaced with the Implements statement and that this part of the code needs to be moved to the next line.

Putting together the Execute Method

The Execute method is the heart and soul of any plug-in, as this contains the code that will execute when the plug-in is triggered. In C#, this is implemented using a void method (i.e. a block of code that does not return a specific value, object etc.). It’s equivalent within VB.Net is a Sub – short for “Subroutine” – which needs to be additionally peppered with an Implements statement to the IPlugin.Execute sub:

Implementing Variables

Here’s where things start to get different. Variables within C# are generally implemented using the following syntax:

<Type> <Variable Name> = <Variable Value>;

So to declare a string object called text, the following code should be used:

string text = “This is my string text”;

Variables in VB.NET, by contrast, are always declared as Dim‘s, with the name and then the Type of the variable declared afterwards. Finally, a value can then be (optionally) provided. A complete example of this can be seen below in the implementing of the IPluginExecutionContext interface:

In this above example, we also see two additional differences that C# developers have to reconcile themselves with:

  • There is no need to specifically cast the value as an IPluginExecutionContext object – a definite improvement over C# 🙂
  • Rather than using the typeof operator when obtaining the service, the VB.NET equivalent GetType should be used instead.

The process of creating variables can seem somewhat labourious when compared with C#, and there are a few other things to bear in mind with variables and this plug-in specifically. These will be covered shortly.

The If…Then Statement

Pretty much every programming language has an implementation of an If…Else construct to perform decisions based on conditions (answers in the comments if you have found a language that doesn’t!). VB.NET is no different, and we can see how this is implemented in the next bit of the plug-in code:

Compared with C#, you have to specifically remember to add a Then statement after your conditional test and also to include an End If at the end of your code block. It’s also important to highlight the use of different operators as well – in this case, And should be used as opposed to &&.

Assigning Values to a CRM Entity Object

The assignment of entity attribute values differs only slight compared with C# – you just need to ensure that you surround your attribute Logical Name value behind brackets as opposed to square brackets:

String concatenates also work slightly differently. Be sure to use & as opposed to to achieve the same purpose. For new line breaks, there is also an equivalent VB.NET snippet that can be used for this, vbCrLf.

Obtaining the Users Display Name Value

The final part of the class file is the retrieval of the Full Name value of the user. This has to be done via a Function as opposed to a Dim, as a specific value needs to be returned. Keep in mind the following as well:

  • Parameters that are fed to the Function must always be prefaced with the ByVal statement – again, another somewhat tedious thing to remember!
  • Note that for the GetAttributeVale method, we specify the attribute data type using the syntax (Of Stringas opposed to <string>

Other than that, syntax-wise, C# experienced developers should have little trouble re-coding this method into VB.NET. This is evidenced by the fact that the below code snippet is approximately 75% similar to how it needs to be in C#:

Bringing it all together

Having gone through the class file from start to bottom, the entire code for the plug-in is reproduced below:

Imports Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk
Imports Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Query

Namespace D365.BlogDemoAssets.VB

    Public Class PostLeadCreate_GetInitiatingUserExample
        Implements IPlugin

        Private Sub IPlugin_Execute(serviceProvider As IServiceProvider) Implements IPlugin.Execute

            'Obtain the execution context from the service provider.

            Dim context As IPluginExecutionContext = serviceProvider.GetService(GetType(IPluginExecutionContext))

            'Obtain the organization service reference.
            Dim serviceFactory As IOrganizationServiceFactory = serviceProvider.GetService(GetType(IOrganizationServiceFactory))
            Dim service As IOrganizationService = serviceFactory.CreateOrganizationService(context.UserId)

            'The InputParameters collection contains all the data passed in the message request.
            If (context.InputParameters.Contains("Target") And TypeOf context.InputParameters("Target") Is Entity) Then

                Dim lead As Entity = context.InputParameters("Target")

                'Use the Context to obtain the Guid of the user who triggered the plugin - this is the only piece of information exposed.

                Dim user As Guid = context.InitiatingUserId

                'Then, use GetUserDisplayCustom method to retrieve the fullname attribute value for the record.

                Dim displayName As String = GetUserDisplayName(user, service)

                'Build out the note record with the required field values: Title, Regarding and Description field

                Dim note As Entity = New Entity("annotation")
                note("subject") = "Test Note"
                note("objectid") = New EntityReference("lead", lead.Id)
                note("notetext") = "This is a test note populated with the name of the user who triggered the Post Create plugin on the Lead entity:" & vbCrLf & vbCrLf & "Executing User: " & displayName

                'Finally, create the record using the IOrganizationService reference

                service.Create(note)

            End If

        End Sub
        Private Function GetUserDisplayName(ByVal userID As Guid, ByVal service As IOrganizationService) As String

            Dim user As Entity = service.Retrieve("systemuser", userID, New ColumnSet("fullname"))
            Return user.GetAttributeValue(Of String)("fullname")

        End Function

    End Class

End Namespace

Conclusions or Wot I Think

C# is arguably the de facto choice when programming using D365CE/CRM, and more generally as well for .NET. All of the code examples, both within the SDK and online, will favour C# and I do very much hold the view that development in C# should always be preferred over VB.NET. Is there ever then a good business case for developing in VB.NET over C#? Clearly, if you have a developer available within your business who can do amazing things in VB.NET, it makes sense for this to be the language of choice to use for time-saving purposes. There may also be a case for developing in VB.NET from a proprietary standpoint. VB.NET is, as acknowledged, not as widely disseminated compared with C#. By developing custom plug-ins in VB.NET, that contain sensitive business information, you are arguably safeguarding the business by utilising a language that C# developers may have difficulty in initially deciphering.

All being said, C# should be preferred when developing plug-ins, custom workflow assemblies or custom applications involving D365CE/CRM. Where some work could be made is in ensuring that all supported programming languages are adequately provisioned for within the D365CE SDK moving forward. Because, let’s be honest – there is no point in supporting something if people have no idea how to use it in the first place.

Working in-depth amidst the Sales entities (e.g. Product, Price List, Quote etc.) within Dynamics CRM/Dynamics 365 Customer Engagement (CRM/D365CE) can produce some unexpected complications. What you may think is simple to achieve on the outset, based on how other entities work within the system, often leads you in a completely different direction. A good rule of thumb is that any overtly complex customisations to these entities will mean having to get down and dirty with C#, VB.Net or even JScript. For example, we’ve seen previously on the blog how, with a bit of a developer expertise, it is possible to overhaul the entire pricing engine within the application to satisfy specific business requirements. There is no way in which this can be modified directly through the application interface, which can lead to CRM deployments that make imaginative and complicated utilisation of features such as Workflows, Business Rules and other native features. Whilst there is nothing wrong with this approach per-say, the end result is often implementations that look messy when viewed cold and which become increasingly difficult to maintain in the long term. As always, there is a balance to be found, and any approach which makes prudent use of both application features and bespoke code is arguably the most desirous end goal for achieving certain business requirements within CRM/D365CE.

To prove my point around Sales entity “oddities”, a good illustration can be found when it comes to working with relationship field mappings and Product records. The most desirable feature at the disposal of CRM customisers is the ability to configure automated field mapping between Entities that have a one-to-many (1:N) relationship between them. What this means, in simple terms, is that when you create a many (N) record from the parent entity (1), you can automatically copy the field values to a matching field on the related entity. This can help to save data entry time when qualifying a Lead to an Opportunity, as all the important field data you need to continue working on the record will be there ready on the newly created Opportunity record. Field mappings can be configured from the 1:N relationship setting window, via the Mappings button:

There are a few caveats to bear in mind – you can only map across fields that have the same underlying data type and you cannot map multiple source fields to the same target (it should be obvious why this is 🙂 ) – but on the whole, this is a handy application feature that those who are more accustomed to CRM development should always bear in the mind when working with CRM/D365CE.

Field mappings are, as indicated, a standard feature within CRM/D365CE – but when you inspect the field relationships between the Product and Quote Product entity, there is no option to configure mappings at all:

Upon closer inspection, many of the relationships between the Product entity and others involved as part of the sales order process are missing the ability to configure field mappings. So, for example, if you have a requirement to map across the value of the Description entity to a newly created Quote Product record, you would have to look at implementing a custom plugin to achieve your requirements. The main benefit of this route is that we have relatively unrestricted access to the record data we need as part of a plugin execution session and – in addition – we can piggyback onto the record creation process to add on our required field “in-flight” – i.e. whilst the record is being created. The code for achieving all of this is as follows:

using System;

using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Query;

namespace D365.BlogDemoAssets.Plugins
{
    public class PreQuoteProductCreate_GetProductAttributeValues : IPlugin
    {
        public void Execute(IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
        {
            //Obtain the execution context from the service provider.

            IPluginExecutionContext context = (IPluginExecutionContext)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IPluginExecutionContext));

            //Get a reference to the Organization service.

            IOrganizationServiceFactory factory = (IOrganizationServiceFactory)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IOrganizationServiceFactory));
            IOrganizationService service = factory.CreateOrganizationService(context.UserId);

            //Extract the tracing service for use in debugging sandboxed plug-ins

            ITracingService tracingService = (ITracingService)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(ITracingService));

            tracingService.Trace("Tracing implemented successfully!");

            if (context.InputParameters.Contains("Target") && context.InputParameters["Target"] is Entity)

            {
                Entity qp = (Entity)context.InputParameters["Target"];

                //Only execute for non-write in Quote Product records

                EntityReference product = qp.GetAttributeValue<EntityReference>("productid");

                if (product != null)

                {

                    Entity p = RetrieveProductID(service, product.Id);
                    string desc = p.GetAttributeValue<string>("description");
                    tracingService.Trace("Product Description = " + desc);
                    qp.Attributes["description"] = desc;

                }

                else

                {
                    tracingService.Trace("Quote Product with record ID " + qp.GetAttributeValue<Guid>("quotedetailid").ToString() + " does not have an associated Product record, cancelling plugin execution.");
                    return;
                }
            }
        }

        public Entity RetrieveProductID(IOrganizationService service, Guid productID)
        {
            ColumnSet cs = new ColumnSet("description"); //Additional fields can be specified using a comma seperated list

            //Retrieve matching record

            return service.Retrieve("product", productID, cs);
        }
    }
}

They key thing to remember when registering your Plugin via the Plugin Registration Tool (steps which regular readers of the blog should have a good awareness of) is to ensure that the Event Pipeline Stage of Execution is set to Pre-operation. From there, the world is your oyster – you could look at returning additional fields from the Product entity to update on your Quote Product record or you could even look at utilising the same plugin for the Order Product and Invoice Product entities (both of these entities also have Description field, so the above code should work on these entities as well).

It’s a real shame that Field Mappings are not available to streamline the population of record data from the Product entity; or the fact that there is no way to utilise features such as Workflows to give you an alternate way of achieving the requirement exemplified in this post. This scenario is another good reason why you should always strive to be a Dynamics 365 Swiss Army Knife, ensuring that you have a good awareness of periphery technology areas that can aid you greatly in mapping business requirements to CRM/D365CE.

In last week’s post, we took a look at how a custom Workflow activity can be implemented within Dynamics CRM/Dynamics 365 for Customer Engagement to obtain the name of the user who triggered the workflow. It may be useful to retrieve this information for a variety of different reasons, such as debugging, logging user activity or to automate the population of key record information. I mentioned in the post the “treasure trove” of information that the IWorkflowContext interface exposes to developers. Custom Workflow activities are not unique in having execution-specific information exposable, with an equivalent interface at our disposal when working with plug-ins. No prizes for guessing its name – the IPluginExecutionContext.

When comparing both interfaces, some comfort can be found in that they share almost identical properties, thereby allowing us to replicate the functionality demonstrated in last weeks post as Post-Execution Create step for the Lead entity. The order of work for this is virtually the same:

  1. Develop a plug-in C# class file that retrieves the User ID of the account that has triggered the plugin.
  2. Add supplementary logic to the above class file to retrieve the Display Name of the User.
  3. Deploy the compiled .dll file into the application via the Plug-in Registration Tool, adding on the appropriate execution step.

The emphasis on this approach, as will be demonstrated, is much more focused towards working outside of the application; something you may not necessarily be comfortable with. Nevertheless, I hope that the remaining sections will provide enough detail to enable you to replicate within your own environment.

Developing the Class File

As before, you’ll need to have ready access to a Visual Studio C# Class file project and the Dynamics 365 SDK. You’ll also need to ensure that your project has a Reference added to the Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.dll. Create a new Class file and copy and paste the following code into the window:

using System;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Query;

namespace D365.BlogDemoAssets.Plugins
{
    public class PostLeadCreate_GetInitiatingUserExample : IPlugin
    {
        public void Execute(IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
        {
            // Obtain the execution context from the service provider.

            IPluginExecutionContext context = (IPluginExecutionContext)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IPluginExecutionContext));

            // Obtain the organization service reference.
            IOrganizationServiceFactory serviceFactory = (IOrganizationServiceFactory)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IOrganizationServiceFactory));
            IOrganizationService service = serviceFactory.CreateOrganizationService(context.UserId);

            // The InputParameters collection contains all the data passed in the message request.
            if (context.InputParameters.Contains("Target") &&
                context.InputParameters["Target"] is Entity)

            {
                Entity lead = (Entity)context.InputParameters["Target"];

                //Use the Context to obtain the Guid of the user who triggered the plugin - this is the only piece of information exposed.
      
                Guid user = context.InitiatingUserId;

                //Then, use GetUserDisplayCustom method to retrieve the fullname attribute value for the record.

                string displayName = GetUserDisplayName(user, service);

                //Build out the note record with the required field values: Title, Regarding and Description field

                Entity note = new Entity("annotation");
                note["subject"] = "Test Note";
                note["objectid"] = new EntityReference("lead", lead.Id);
                note["notetext"] = @"This is a test note populated with the name of the user who triggered the Post Create plugin on the Lead entity:" + Environment.NewLine + Environment.NewLine + "Executing User: " + displayName;

                //Finally, create the record using the IOrganizationService reference

                service.Create(note);
            }
        }
    }
}

Note also that you will need to rename the namespace value to match against the name of your project.

To explain, the code replicates the same functionality developed as part of the Workflow on last week’s post – namely, create a Note related to a newly created Lead record and populate it with the Display Name of the User who has triggered the plugin.

Retrieving the User’s Display Name

After copying the above code snippet into your project, you may notice a squiggly red line on the following method call:

The GetUserDisplayName is a custom method that needs to be added in manually and is the only way in which we can retrieve the Display Name of the user, which is not returned as part of the IPluginExecutionContext. We, therefore, need to query the User (systemuser) entity to return the Full Name (fullname) field, which we can then use to populate our newly create Note record. We use a custom method to return this value, which is provided below and should be placed after the last 2 curly braces after the Execute method, but before the final 2 closing braces:

private string GetUserDisplayName(Guid userID, IOrganizationService service)
    {
        Entity user = service.Retrieve("systemuser", userID, new ColumnSet("fullname"));
        return user.GetAttributeValue<string>("fullname");
    }

Deploy to the application using the Plug-in Registration Tool

The steps involved in this do not differ greatly from what was demonstrated in last week’s post, so I won’t repeat myself 🙂 The only thing you need to make sure you do after you have registered the plug-in is to configure the plug-in Step. Without this, your plug-in will not execute. Right-click your newly deployed plug-in on the main window of the Registration Tool and select Register New Step:

On the form that appears, populate the fields/values indicated below:

  • Message: Create
  • Primary Entity: Lead
  • Run in User’s Context: Calling User
  • Event Pipeline Stage of Execution: Post-Operation

The window should look similar to the below if populated correctly. If so, then you can click Register New Step to update the application:

All that remains is to perform a quick test within the application by creating a new Lead record. After saving, we can then verify that the plug-in has created the Note record as intended:

Having compared both solutions to achieve the same purpose, is there a recommended approach to take?

The examples shown in the past two blog posts indicate excellently how solutions to specific scenarios within the application can be achieved via differing ways. As clearly evidenced, one could argue that there is a code-heavy (plug-in) and a light-touch coding (custom Workflow assembly) option available, depending on how comfortable you are with working with the SDK. Plug-ins are a natural choice if you are confident working solely within Visual Studio or have a requirement to perform additional business logic as part of your requirements. This could range from complex record retrieval operations within the application or even an external integration piece involving specific and highly tailored code. The Workflow path clearly favours those of us who prefer to work within the application in a supported manner and, in this particular example, can make certain tasks easier to accomplish. As we have seen, the act of retrieving the Display Name of a user is greatly simplified when we go down the Workflow route. Custom Workflow assemblies also offer greater portability and reusability, meaning that you can tailor logic that can be applied to multiple different scenarios in the future. Code reusability is one of the key drivers in many organisations these days, and the use of custom Workflow assemblies neatly fits into this ethos.

These are perhaps a few considerations that you should make when choosing the option that fits the needs of your particular requirement, but it could be that the way you feel most comfortable with ultimately wins the day – so long as this does not compromise the organisation as a consequence, then this is an acceptable stance to take. Hopefully, this short series of posts have demonstrated the versatility of the application and the ability to approach challenges with equally acceptable pathways for resolution.

Dynamics CRM/Dynamics 365 for Customer Engagement (CRM/D365CE) is an incredibly flexible application for the most part. Regardless of how your business operates, you can generally tailor the system to suit your requirements and extend it to your heart’s content; often to the point where it is completely unrecognisable from the base application. Notwithstanding this argument, you will come across aspects of the application that are (literally) hard-coded to behave a certain way and cannot be straightforwardly overridden via the application interface. The most recognisable example of this is the Lead Qualification process. You are heavily restricted in how this piece of functionality acts by default but, thankfully, there are ways in which it can be modified if you are comfortable working with C#, JScript and Ribbon development.

Before we can start to look at options for tailoring the Lead Qualification process, it is important to understand what occurs during the default action within the application. In developer-speak, this is generally referred to as the QualifyLead message and most typically executes when you click the button below on the Lead form:

When called by default, the following occurs:

  • The Status/Status Reason of the Lead is changed to Qualified, making the record inactive and read-only.
  • A new OpportunityContact and Account record is created and populated with (some) of the details entered on the Lead record. For example, the Contact record will have a First Name/Last Name value supplied on the preceding Lead record.
  • You are automatically redirected to the newly created Opportunity record.

This is all well and good if you are able to map your existing business processes to the application, but most organisations will typically differ from the applications B2B orientated focus. For example, if you are working within a B2C business process, creating an Account record may not make sense, given that this is typically used to represent a company/organisation. Or, conversely, you may want to jump straight from a Lead to a Quote record. Both of these scenarios would require bespoke development to accommodate currently within CRM/D365CE. This can be broadly categorised into two distinct pieces of work:

  1. Modify the QualifyLead message during its execution to force the desired record creation behaviour.
  2. Implement client-side logic to ensure that the user is redirected to the appropriate record after qualification.

The remaining sections of this post will demonstrate how you can go about achieving the above requirements in two different ways.

Our first step is to “intercept” the QualifyLead message at runtime and inject our own custom business logic instead

I have seen a few ways that this can be done. One way, demonstrated here by the always helpful Jason Lattimer, involves creating a custom JScript function and a button on the form to execute your desired logic. As part of this code, you can then specify your record creation preferences. A nice and effective solution, but one in its guise above will soon obsolete as a result of the SOAP endpoint deprecation. An alternative way is to instead deploy a simplistic C# plugin class that ensures your custom logic is obeyed across the application, and not just when you are working from within the Lead form (e.g. you could have a custom application that qualifies leads using the SDK). Heres how the code would look in practice:

public void Execute(IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
    {
        //Obtain the execution context from the service provider.

        IPluginExecutionContext context = (IPluginExecutionContext)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IPluginExecutionContext));

        if (context.MessageName != "QualifyLead")
            return;

        //Get a reference to the Organization service.

        IOrganizationServiceFactory factory = (IOrganizationServiceFactory)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IOrganizationServiceFactory));
        IOrganizationService service = factory.CreateOrganizationService(context.UserId);

        //Extract the tracing service for use in debugging sandboxed plug-ins

        ITracingService tracingService = (ITracingService)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(ITracingService));

        tracingService.Trace("Input parameters before:");
        foreach (var item in context.InputParameters)
        {
            tracingService.Trace("{0}: {1}", item.Key, item.Value);
        }

        //Modify the below input parameters to suit your requirements.
        //In this example, only a Contact record will be created
        
        context.InputParameters["CreateContact"] = true;
        context.InputParameters["CreateAccount"] = false;
        context.InputParameters["CreateOpportunity"] = false;

        tracingService.Trace("Input parameters after:");
        foreach (var item in context.InputParameters)
        {
            tracingService.Trace("{0}: {1}", item.Key, item.Value);
        }
    }

To work correctly, you will need to ensure this is deployed out on the Pre-Operation stage, as by the time the message reaches the Post-Operation stage, you will be too late to modify the QualifyLead message.

The next challenge is to handle the redirect to your record of choice after Lead qualification

Jason’s code above handles this effectively, with a redirect after the QualifyLead request has completed successfully to the newly created Account (which can be tweaked to redirect to the Contact instead). The downside of the plugin approach is that this functionality is not supported. So, if you choose to disable the creation of an Opportunity record and then press the Qualify Lead button…nothing will happen. The record will qualify successfully (which you can confirm by refreshing the form) but you will then have to manually navigate to the record(s) that have been created.

The only way around this with the plugin approach is to look at implementing a similar solution to the above – a Web API request to retrieve your newly created Contact/Account record and then perform the necessary redirect to your chosen entity form:

function redirectOnQualify() {

    setTimeout(function(){
        
        var leadID = Xrm.Page.data.entity.getId();

        leadID = leadID.replace("{", "");
        leadID = leadID.replace("}", "");

        var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
        req.open("GET", Xrm.Page.context.getClientUrl() + "/api/data/v8.0/leads(" + leadID + ")?$select=_parentaccountid_value,_parentcontactid_value", true);
        req.setRequestHeader("OData-MaxVersion", "4.0");
        req.setRequestHeader("OData-Version", "4.0");
        req.setRequestHeader("Accept", "application/json");
        req.setRequestHeader("Content-Type", "application/json; charset=utf-8");
        req.setRequestHeader("Prefer", "odata.include-annotations=\"OData.Community.Display.V1.FormattedValue\"");
        req.onreadystatechange = function () {
            if (this.readyState === 4) {
                req.onreadystatechange = null;
                if (this.status === 200) {
                    var result = JSON.parse(this.response);
                    
                    //Uncomment based on which record you which to redirect to.
                    //Currently, this will redirect to the newly created Account record
                    var accountID = result["_parentaccountid_value"];
                    Xrm.Utility.openEntityForm('account', accountID);

                    //var contactID = result["_parentcontactid_value"];
                    //Xrm.Utility.openEntityForm('contact', contactID);

                }
                else {
                    alert(this.statusText);
                }
            }
        };
        req.send();
        
    }, 6000);     
}

The code is set to execute the Web API call 6 seconds after the function triggers. This is to ensure adequate time for the QualifyLead request to finish and make the fields we need available for accessing.

To deploy out, we use the eternally useful Ribbon Workbench to access the existing Qualify Lead button and add on a custom command that will fire alongside the default one:

As this post has hopefully demonstrated, overcoming challenges within CRM/D365CE can often result in different – but no less preferred – approaches to achieve your desired outcome. Let me know in the comments below if you have found any other ways of modifying the default Lead Qualification process within the application.

When working with applications day in, day out, you sometimes overlook something that is sitting there, staring at you in the face. It may be an important feature or an inconsequential piece of functionality, but you never really take the time to fully understand either way just what it is and whether it can offer any distinct benefits or assistance. I realised a great example of this when recently deploying some new Plug-ins into Dynamics CRM/Dynamics 365 for Enterprise (CRM/D365E). When you are setting up a new Step for your Plug-in, you are given the option of specifying an Unsecure Configuration and Secure Configuration via a multi-line text box to the right of the window:

1

I was curious about just what these are and why it is not something that you ever really come across when you are first learning about Plug-in development with the application. I took a closer look at what these text boxes do and, as part of this week’s blog post, I wanted to share my findings and provide a demonstration of how they work in practice.

The Theoretical Bit: Unsecure/Secure Configuration Overview

Typically, when we want to get some juicy information relating to a piece of CRM/D365E functionality, we would turn to our good friends TechNet or MSDN. In this instance, however, there is no dedicated page that covers this topic in-depth. We must instead navigate to the Write a Plug-in Constructor page to find dedicated information about how these work:

The Microsoft Dynamics 365 platform supports an optional plug-in constructor that accepts either one or two string parameters. If you write a constructor like this, you can pass any strings of information to the plug-in at run time.

These “one or two” parameters are the multi-line text boxes indicated above. Information is exposed as string objects within you C# code and you enable this feature within your code by specifying the following, SDK adapted constructor within your Plug-in class:

public MyPlugin(string unsecureString, string secureString)
    {
        if (String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(unsecureString) ||
            String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(secureString))
            {
                throw new InvalidPluginExecutionException("Unsecure and secure strings are required for this plugin to execute.");
            }

            _unsecureString = unsecureString;
            _secureString = secureString;
    }

As with anything, there are a number of important caveats to bear in mind with this feature. These can be gleaned via additional online sources:

In terms of use cases, the above articles highlight some potential scenarios that they are best utilised within. Perhaps the best example is for an ISV solution that requires integration with external web services to retrieve data that is then consumed by CRM/D365E. Credentials for these web services can be stored securely when the Plug-in is deployed via the use of Secure configuration parameters. Other than that, if you are developing a Plug-in for internal use, that is unlikely to be deployed/managed across multiple environments, then it is probably not worthwhile to look at utilising configuration parameters when you can just as easily specify these within your code.

Practice Makes (for) Perfect (Understanding)!

The best way to see how something works is by getting hands-on and seeing how it works in action. Let’s assume you wish to deploy a plugin that executes whenever a record is opened/viewed by any user across the platform. The plugin should update the First Name (firstname) and Last Name (lastname) fields to match the value(s) in the Unsecure and Secure Configuration properties accordingly. The below plugin code will achieve these requirements:

using System;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk;

namespace D365.BlogDemoAssets.Plugins
{
    public class PostContactRetrieve_PluginConfigurationTest : IPlugin
    {
        private readonly string _unsecureString;
        private readonly string _secureString;
        public PostContactRetrieve_PluginConfigurationTest(string unsecureString, string secureString)
        {
            if (String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(unsecureString) ||
                String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(secureString))
            {
                throw new InvalidPluginExecutionException("Unsecure and secure strings are required for this plugin to execute.");
            }

            _unsecureString = unsecureString;
            _secureString = secureString;
        }
        public void Execute(IServiceProvider serviceProvider)
        {
            // Obtain the execution context from the service provider.

            IPluginExecutionContext context = (IPluginExecutionContext)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IPluginExecutionContext));

            // Obtain the organization service reference.
            IOrganizationServiceFactory serviceFactory = (IOrganizationServiceFactory)serviceProvider.GetService(typeof(IOrganizationServiceFactory));
            IOrganizationService service = serviceFactory.CreateOrganizationService(context.UserId);

            // The InputParameters collection contains all the data passed in the message request.
            if (context.InputParameters.Contains("Target") &&
                context.InputParameters["Target"] is EntityReference)
            {
                Entity contact = new Entity("contact", ((EntityReference)context.InputParameters["Target"]).Id);
                
                contact["firstname"] = _unsecureString;
                contact["lastname"] = _secureString;
                service.Update(contact);

            }
        }
    }
}

When deploying the plugin using the Plugin Registration Tool, we specify the step to execute on the Retrieve message and to execute in the Pre-Operation Stage (otherwise the form will need to be refreshed to see the updated values!). We also need to specify our desired values for the First Name and Last Name fields in the appropriate Configuration fields. The Register New Step window should look similar to the below if configured correctly:

When we navigate into the Jim Glynn (sample) Contact record within CRM/D365E, we can see that the Plug-in has triggered successfully and updated the fields to match against the values specified on Step above:

We can also confirm that the appropriate error is thrown when one of the configuration properties is missing a value, by modifying our Plug-in step and attempting to reload our sample Contact record:

Can you spot what’s missing? 🙂

By clicking Download Log File, we can view the error message specified as part of the InvalidPluginExecutionException call. Below is a modified excerpt of the ErrorDetails XML that is generated:

  <InnerFault>
    <ActivityId>ed4a2021-9c87-4f06-a493-6d804676bf96</ActivityId>
    <ErrorCode>-2147220891</ErrorCode>
    <ErrorDetails xmlns:d3p1="http://schemas.datacontract.org/2004/07/System.Collections.Generic" />
    <Message>Unsecure and secure strings are required for this plugin to execute.</Message>
    <ExceptionSource i:nil="true" />
    <InnerFault i:nil="true" />
    <OriginalException i:nil="true" />
    <TraceText i:nil="true" />
  </InnerFault>

Conclusions or Wot I Think

It is impossible to become what I would like to term a “pub quiz champion” in CRM/D365E; what I mean by this is that I would defy anyone to rattle off every little detail and fact about the entire platform. As with any pub-quiz, those that do may more than likely end up cheating by having their phone out. With this metaphor in mind, I think Plug-in configuration properties would be an excellent topic for a quiz of this nature. As mentioned previously, it is not something that I was ever made aware of when starting to learn about Plug-in development and is not a feature touted regularly within the online community. Perhaps this is because of its very specific and limited application – although it is handy to have at our disposal, I think its usage is really only targeted towards those who are developing solutions that are deployed across multiple environments AND require the need to store configuration properties for external URL’s/web services in a compact and secure manner. Therefore, if you are currently having to use a custom entity within the application to store this type of information, it would make sense to reduce the footprint of your solution within the application itself and make the appropriate changes to use Secure configuration parameters instead. Using a bit of ingenuity (such as XML configuration parameters), you can achieve the same requirements without the need to customise the application unnecessarily.